Inkqubo ye-Global Positioning System (i-GPS) isebenza njani kwaye Ungakhangela njani kuyo?

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Inkqubo ye-Global Positioning System (i-GPS) isebenza njani kwaye Ungakhangela njani kuyo?

Isebenza njani iGPS kunye nokulandela umkhondo kuyo

Yintoni iGPS?

Inkqubo yokuBekwa kwiHlabathi (i-GPS) yinkqubo yokuhamba nge-satellite eyenza indawo kunye nolwazi lwexesha kuzo zonke iindawo neemeko zemozulu zomsebenzisi. Yenziwa kwiqela leesathelayithi ezingama-24 kunye nezikhululo zazo zomhlaba, inkqubo yeGPS ixhaswa kakhulu kwaye ilawulwa ngokupheleleyo liSebe lezoKhuseleko lase-US. I-GPS ikwasetyenziselwa ukukhangela kwiimoto ezibandakanya iinqanawa, iinqwelomoya, iinqwelomoya, izithuthuthu kunye iilori. Le nkqubo inika amandla amaninzi aluncedo kumkhosi nakwezoluntu kulo lonke elijikeleze umhlaba, i-GPS ibonelela ngokuqhubekeka nexesha lokwenyani, ukubeka isikhundla se-3D kunye nokuhamba ngenqanawa kunye nokuhamba kwexesha kwihlabathi lonke. Kunokutshiwo ukuba kubandakanya amacandelo amathathu:

  • Indawo yesithuba: Iishelayithi
  • Inkqubo yokulawula, elawulwa ngumkhosi wase-US
  • Icandelo lomsebenzisi: elisetyenziswa ngabemi nabezomkhosi kwihlabathi liphela

IGPS yindlela yokufumana indawo ngqo yento ethile okanye eyomntu. Inkqubo yokulandela umkhondo we-GPS, umzekelo, mhlawumbi ibekwe kwinqwelo (Imoto), kwisixhobo esikhethekileyo seGPS njengePCA okanye kwizixhobo ezikwiselfowuni. Inokuba iyunithi esisigxina okanye ephathekayo, isebenza ngokubonelela ngendawo ethe ngqo. Ikwanokulandelela ukuhamba kwezinto kunye nabantu. Umzekelo, umzali unokusebenzisa i-GPS ukubeka iliso ekuhambeni kwabantwana babo xa besiya esikolweni okanye inokusetyenziswa ziinkonzo zekhuriya ukubeka iliso kuhambo lweelori ezizisiweyo.

Inkqubo yokulandela umkhondo we-GPS

Inkqubo yokulandela umkhondo we-GPS isebenzisa inethiwekhi ye-Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Le inethiwekhi ebandakanya uluhlu lweesatellite ezisebenzisa imiqondiso ye-microwave edluliselwa kwi-GPS yenza ukuba isixhobo sikwazi ukunika ulwazi ngesantya saso, indawo kunye nexesha lendawo ngomkhombandlela. Ke, inkqubo yokulandela umkhondo we-GPS inokunika zombini i-navigation yimbali kunye nedatha yexesha lokwenyani naluphi na uhlobo lokuhamba. I-GPS ibonelela ngemiqondiso ekhethekileyo yesatellite eqhutywa ngabamkeli, ezifumanekayo azikwazi ukulandelela indawo yomqondiso kuphela kodwa zikwazi ukubala umgama oshukumayo wento eshukuma kunye nomda wexesha elimi kuwo. Isikhundla esichanekileyo sinokuchongwa ngokuthe ngqo kusetyenziswa imiqondiso ye-satellite ye-GPS eyi-4 ukuvelisa umbono we-3D, icandelo lesithuba li-24 elisebenza nge-satellite ye-GPS kunye nee-satellite ezintathu ezongezelelweyo kwimeko enye okanye ezingaphezulu. Isatellite nganye ijikeleza umhlaba rhoqo ngeentsuku ezili-3 ngelixa usasaza imiqondiso yerediyo efunyenwe ngabafumana i-GPS.

I-GPS imisela njani indawo

Umgaqo wokusebenza we-GPS usekwe kumgaqo wezibalo obizwa ngokuba ngu "trilateration". I-Trilateration iwela kwi-2D kunye neentlobo ze-3D, ukwenzela ukuba ukubala okugqibeleleyo kwezibalo umntu owamkelekileyo kwi-GPS kufuneka azi kuqala izinto ezimbini. Okokuqala yindawo yendawo ephantsi kobuncinci beesathelayithi kwaye okwesibini, kukuba kufuneka wazi umgama phakathi kwesikhundla kunye neesathelayithi. Zonke ezi zinto zithetha ngemiqondiso yokuba idluliso kusetyenziswa amaza ombane ahamba ngesantya sokukhanya, ezi zenzo zenzeka kwimizuzwana. Isikhundla simiselwe kude kude nomgama wesatellite, umlinganiso omiselweyo usetyenziselwa ukumisela indawo yomamkeli ngelixa esemhlabeni. Uqinisekiso lwenziwa nge-satellite yesine. Zonke ezinye iziphathamandla ezithathu zisetyenziselwa ukulandelela indawo esemhlabeni kuba i-GPS inesatellite, isikhululo sokulawula kunye nesikhululo sokubeka esweni. Umamkeli weGPS uthatha indawo yento evela kwisatellite kwaye asebenzisa indlela ebizwa ngokuba “luxantathu” ukumisela indawo ngqo yomsebenzisi okanye into.

Ukusetyenziswa okuthile nokusetyenziswa kweGPS

  1. Ukuhambahamba kokuhamba; ungalahleka okanye uzama ukufumana indawo ethile kwindawo engaziwayo ukuba ungayisebenzisa, ungasebenzisa i-GPS ukulandelela indlela eya kwindawo oya kuyo
  2. Ukuchongwa komgama phakathi kwamanqaku amabini, iGPS ingasetyenziselwa ukumisela umgama ochanekileyo phakathi kwamanqaku amabini
  3. Ukwenza imephu yedijithali yendawo esetyenziselwa isiko elithile, imephu zikaGoogle kunye nezinye iintlobo zeemephu zenziwe kusetyenziswa inkqubo yokulandela umkhondo we-GPS kunye nezinye iinkqubo.
  4. Ukuchonga indawo; Umzekelo, ijoni lemfazwe lifuna ukuba yingxangxasi kwijetti yokulwa, idilesi yerediyo iya kufuneka yenziwe kunye ne-GPS esetyenziselwa ukukhomba indawo ethile

Inkqubo yokulandela umkhondo ngendlela eyahlukileyo

Inkqubo yokulandela umkhondo we-GPS inokusebenza ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo, kumbono wezorhwebo, njengoko kuchaziwe ngaphambili; I-GPS isetyenziselwa ukurekhoda indawo yeemoto ezivela kwiinkampani njengoko zisenza uhambo oluya kuzo. Enye inkqubo igcina indawo yayo amaxesha ngamaxesha kwifomathi yelogi kwimo yememori kwinkqubo yokulandela umkhondo we-GPS, oku kuyaziwa ngokuba ngumkhondo wokulandela nje. Enye indlela yindlela esebenzayo, kolu lwazi luthunyelwa kwindawo yolwazi lonke ixesha lokuphumla, oku kuhlala kuqeshwa. Ukulandelelwa kwemoto kwi-GPS kusiza kakhulu kuba uphando lwamapolisa luya kuhlala luqala apha ukuba imoto ibiwe, inkqubo yokulandela umkhondo iza kunceda ekufumaneni indawo ebekuhanjwa kuyo.

Ukulandelelwa kwefowuni eselfowuni, ukuveliswa kwezixhobo zefowuni kudala kudlulile kwinjongo yokuqala yokufikelela kubasebenzisi ukuba ngabaselula. Iiselfowuni namhlanje zihambele phambili kwaye zinikezela ngokubaluleka ngakumbi kunokuqhuba nje okanye ukudlulisa imiyalezo ngeNkonzo eMfutshane yoMyalezo (iSMS). Ukulandelwa kwefowuni yefowuni yefowuni yinkqubela phambili kubuchwepheshe. Iiselfowuni zihlala zigqithisa amaza erediyo nokuba ayisebenzi, le ihlala iyindlela esetyenziswayo ngabasebenza ngefowuni yokufumana iselfowuni nangaliphi na ixesha. Kumaxesha akutsha nje ukusebenza kweGPS kuye kongezwa kwezi zixhobo ziphathwayo kwaye ngoku ukulandela umkhondo wefowuni akukaze kube lula kwaye kuchaneke, imigaqo-nkqubo yoxantathu isetyenziswa ziisatellite ukuhlala usifumana isixhobo. Itekhnoloji yendawo isekwe kumgangatho wamandla okulinganisa kunye nephethini ye-antenna ecaleni kwento yokuba izixhobo eziselfowuni zihlala zinxibelelana ngaphandle kwentambo ngesitishi esikufutshane, xa sele usazi ukuba yeyiphi indawo yesitishi esihambahamba kuyo esithetha nawe uyayazi indawo ekude isiqhelo indawo eyi-50m.

Ukubaluleka kwenkqubo yokulandela umkhondo we-GPS

Ngeenkwenkwezi zethu ezenziwe ngumntu, sinokwazi ukuba siphi kwaye siyaphi kuyo yonke indawo ngexesha. Ukuhambahamba kunye nokuma kwindawo ibisoloko kuyingxaki kule ndoda yakudala, oku kwenziwe lula kakhulu kumaxesha anamhlanje enkosi kwinkqubo yeGPS. I-GPS ezimotweni, kwizikhephe, ezindizeni nakwiilori zenza ukuba kube lula ukuhambisa ngenqanawa. Ukuziqhuba (i-autopilot) kunokwenzeka kuphela ngenxa ye-GPS.

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